Encouraging children to develop narratives by connecting ideas and events in stories

 

Literacy acts in Early Years involve more than merely reciting a text, viewing pictures on the page or learning new vocabulary. Literacy is a dynamic process, which not only involves an individual and a text, but rather a “transpersonal” phenomenon simultaneously involving “social, cultural, and linguistic acts” (Cummins, 2005, p. 98). With this understanding in mind, the purpose of this Week Ahead will be to demonstrate how parents can develop children’s language abilities through exploring text and print resources (e.g. picture books) to develop and scaffold children’s language abilities.

Given the fact that “language and literacy development begins within the home and through family experiences,” many researchers have suggested that parents be trained in using stories to serve as a foundation for “decontextuali[s]ed discussions” which has been correlated positively with gains in language and literacy development in Early Years (Jimenez, 2006, pp. 431, 433; Sehlaoul, 2008, p. 288). The following studies provide insights into how parents can utilise literacy acts to develop their children’s language abilities at home.

The Hu and Commeyras Study

The Hu and Commeyras (2008) study sought to investigate how utilizing wordless picture books in conjunction with literacy events, such as storytelling, would enable a young Chinese elementary school student to further develop her spoken, written, and reading abilities in both English (L2) and Chinese (L1). The researchers cite the fact that very few studies have focused on bi-literacy among individuals who use both Chinese and English in their daily lives (pp. 1-2, 5). The child in this study had only been in the United States for a month and had recently started attending English classes at an Early Years setting (p.5). Chaochao was required to meet with the researcher, three times a week for ten weeks to discuss ten different wordless children’s picture books about animals, school, and the seasons (pp. 5-6).

When the researcher and Chaochao met on Mondays, they engaged in pre-reading activities where the researcher assessed Chaochao’s knowledge concerning the pictures in the book by asking her to name the pictures. In addition, the researcher familiarised the little girl with the content of the story and presented word labels based on the textbook pictures. After this, she was allowed to tell a story about the pictures in the book in both English and Chinese. In addition to recording these sessions, the researcher transcribed her stories and “corrected the grammar of Chaochao’s sentences and wrote the correct sentences on cards” which were to be utilized during the second meeting. On Wednesdays, Chaochao engaged in what the researcher referred to as “reading activities” and was thus allowed to tell her story again, read flashcards containing English and Chinese vocabulary that she used in her stories on Mondays, in addition to reading “the biliterate text that [the researcher] had made.” On Fridays, she participated in post-reading activities. She was allowed to retell her story again while the researcher expanded on sentences and words that Chaochao used during the previous sessions. These expanded activities consisted of the following:

  1. Picture searches (the researcher read a word from the vocabulary cards from Chaochao’s earlier utterances while Chaochao searched.)
  2. Recitation and Word-Picture matching.
  3. Creating sentences using words from the vocabulary cards.
  4. Creating sentences based on pictures within the book.
  5. Pairing words in Chaochao’s sentences with words from the vocabulary cards
  6. “Invented spelling of Chaochao’s words and her own sentences in English” (pp. 6-9).

The researchers in this study concluded that, as a result of the storytelling sessions, Chaochao “began to use more vocabulary and make longer sentences in both English and Chinese storytelling” (p. 13) Interestingly, she made the greatest improvement in terms of sentence length and word use in her native Mandarin. Furthermore, the researchers found that Chaochao’s sentences became more and more complex throughout her meetings with the researcher, and she also made fewer errors in English, especially in regard to tense. Finally, she was able to steadily make gains in her ability to read words that she produced when she met with the researcher. As a result, Chaochao improved her Chinese as well as English language abilities (pp.13-19).

The Jimenez Study

Jimenez (2006) set out to determine the effectiveness of training Spanish parents in developing reading techniques and strategies to promote the development of their children’s competencies in the home language. The researchers sought to examine if the aforementioned training would enable children to increase the “quantity and variety of [their] language during storybook reading interactions in the home language” (pp. 435-436). The participants consisted of 16 primary school children, who were selected from southern California (p. 436).

The researchers began the intervention and training of the parents by assigning one of two research teams to visit each family every other week. When researchers met with the participants’ parents, they informed them about the study and assessed the parents’ literary practices in the home. In addition, the researchers had the parents read a book, which they had previously read, to their children. During subsequent visits, the researchers taught the parents “six shared reading strategies over three separate sessions” which were presented in the following order:

  1. Connecting with the text. (e.g. Are you similar to the main character or different?)
  2. “[P]raising and encouraging child’s responses.”
  3. Asking more elaborated and well-developed questions. (e.g. What do you think of the main character?)
  4. Scaffolding the child’s responses by adding new ideas and more details. (I wonder if Jack grows beans on the farm.)
  5. Speculating about future events in the story (What will happen next?).
  6. “[I]ntroducing new vocabulary” (e.g. He is very happy and excited) (p. 437).

The researchers found that, in line with previous research, children’s production of the target language increased as parents implemented the various learning strategies. In addition, the researchers found that parents were more likely to give their children time to speak during reading sessions as their competencies in the techniques and strategies increased. The most frequently used strategies by the parents were number (1) and number (3) listed above. The researchers conjecture that these two strategies were the most frequently used because they “were also the most rewarding” in terms of assisting children by further scaffolding the development of their linguistic skills (pp. 437-444).

In conclusion, parents can benefit from having children talk about the stories that are read at home while extending their children’s ideas and understanding about key concepts that appear in stories. The secret to success in developing children’s language as they talk about their favourite stories lies in the following types of intervention:

  1. Allow children to be autonomous and decide which books would be read and what would be discussed in those books.
  2. Make “declarative statements” and allow children the chance to respond to those statements.
  3. Ask various types of questions (‘open ended’ and ‘closed’) and give children time to respond to those questions.
  4. Scaffold a child’s response to the text or question by using more “advanced language” or demonstrating more “complex” versions of the child’s utterances (Lim & Cole, 2002).

References

Bell, J. (1995). The relationship between L1 and L2: Some complicated factors. TESOL                            Quarterly, 29(4), 687-704.

Courcy, M. (2006). Multilingualism, literacy and the acquisition of English as an additional                      language among Iraqi refugees in regional Victoria. Proceedings of the University of                     Sydney TESOL Research Network Colloquium. 2, 1-31.

Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual                    children. Review of Educational Research. 49, 221-251.

Cummins, J. (2005). Teaching for cross-language transfer in dual language education:                                  Possibilities and pitfalls. Presented at the TESOL Symposium on Dual Language                                   Education: Teaching and Learning Two Languages in the EFL Setting. Bogazici                            University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Hansen, L. (2001). Language attrition: The fate of the start. Annual Review of Applied        Linguistics, 21, 60-73.

Jimenez, T. (2006). Shared reading within Latino families: an analysis of reading interactions                     and language use. Bilingual Research Journal, 30(2), 431-452.

Kopke, B. (2004). Neurolinguistic aspects of attrition. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 17, 3-30.

Lim, Y. & Cole, K. (2002). Facilitating first language development in young korean children                      through parent training in picture book interactions. Bilingual Research Journal, 26(2),                    213-227.

Martinez-Roldan, M. & Malave, G. (2004). Language ideologies mediating literacy and identity                in bilingual contexts. Journal of Childhood Literacy, 4, 155-180.

Paez, M. & Rinaldi C. (2006). Predicting English word reading skills for Spanish-speaking                        students in first grade. Topics in Language Disorders. 26(4). 338-350.

Potier, B. (2003, November 13). Research on ESL children has surprising results. Harvard           University Gazette. Retrieved from http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2003/11.13/03-                      lesaux.html

Ran H. & Commeyras M. (2008). A case study: Emergent biliteracy in English and Chinese of a   5-year old Chinese child with wordless picture books. Taylor and Francis Group. 29, 1-      30.

Reyes, M. (2001). Unleashing possibilities: Biliteracy in the primary grades. New York:   Teachers College Press.

Robert, S. (2008, August 13). In a generation, minorities may be the U.S. majority. The New         York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/14/washington/14census.           html

Sehlaoul, A. (2008). Language learning, heritage, and literacy in the USA: The case of Arabic.                    Language, Culture, and Curriculum. 21(3), 280-291.

Spolsky, B. (2000). Anniversary article language motivation revisited. Applied Linguistics, 21       (2), 157-169.

Verhoeven, L. (1994). Transfer in bilingual development: the linguistic interdependence

hypothesis revisited. Language learning, 44(3), 381-415.

Wakabayashi, T. (2002). Bilingualism as a future investment: The case of Japanese high school     students at an international school in Japan. Bilingual Research Journal, 26(3), 631-658.

How can We Beat Racism in the 21st Century?

In our 21st century context, racism, particularly the kind that is prevalent in the West, manifests itself in the form of institutional or systematic acts that serve, intentionally or unintentionally, to maintain hierarchical systems of oppression. Those affected by racism suffer physiologically, psychologically and economically from issues such as higher blood pressure, increased risk of depression, as well as reduced opportunities for social mobility.

To be clear, when we are talking about racism, we are not only talking about people using derogatory language toward each other and we are not talking about overt acts of racial aggression such as lynchings or mob violence. These very overt forms of racism, while they occur, are exceedingly rare in our normal day to day interactions. And while acts of brutality may occur, it has become easier to prosecute this form of racism within the legal system.

In the 21st century, our issue with racism, to my mind, lies in a sort of covert exclusion in which the oppressed have fewer opportunities for advancement or empowerment and the exclusion serves to remind the perpetrators of their privilege and the oppressed of their lack thereof. It results from discrimination based on group affiliation and since this form of discrimination is based on color, it makes it difficult to identify the perpetrators intentions  or that the perpetrator is aware of his or her own intention. If I refuse to sit next to someone because I am afraid of my perceptions of that person’s race or deny a minority the opportunity to contribute in a meeting, are these to be considered acts of racism? After all, decisions have to be made and this quite naturally means that some will be excluded and others avoided for the sake of taking action.

Racism ultimately  emerges when such acts occur systematically. Victims feel discriminated against because such acts have happened time and time again in ways that have affected their physiological, psychological or economic well being. For example, I’ve known Ivy league graduates of color who were greatly skilled in their area of expertise who were rejected from jobs or, in several cases, where the interviewers created extra steps in the interview process after it was clear that the candidates were clearly qualified. The interviewers purpose was to prevent these candidates from gaining employment. Stories from the oppressed are abound with examples of systematic mistreatment even as the perpetrators were not aware that they were perpetuating these systems of destruction.

Covert exclusion, in our modern age,  manifests itself in daily interactions in the form of racial microaggressions. Dr. Sue describes microaggressions as “the brief and everyday slights, insults, indignities and denigrating messages sent to people of color by well-intentioned people who are unaware of the hidden messages being communicated.” (click here to learn more). Victims may report being racially profiled, or being avoided because of one’s race or being given fewer opportunities to contribute or take part in discussions or feeling that one’s contribution is worth contributing.  Aggressions may result from being suspected of stealing, criminal activity or accused or wrongdoing. Racial microaggressions have replaced the lynching mobs of the 20th century as the tools to maintain a status quo that define those who have privilege and those who do not.

So how do we stop these things from happening in the 21st century? We want to hear your suggestions. Please comment below in the comment section and let us know what you think can be done to beat racism in the 21st century.

My E-Flipbook

This post is a culmination of the extent of my online presence. I have integrated my E-Flipbook as well as key videos and links into this post as a way of organizing my ideas. I hope the extent of my experiences within the field of education and use of technology effectively  underscores the necessity of technology within the field. In reflection, I understand how technology can be utilized to level the playing field, extend our students’ learning and connect cultures on an international scale.

The following videos and links can also be found in my Flipbook above.

My Reflection: Why Technology Matters

Using Technology in the Classroom: Poetry in the ESL Classroom

Shanghai Shopper
An e-Commerce website that I created:

Important Links related to my E-Flipbook!

  1. E-Flipbook (if you would like to view it full screen) (click here)
  2. Teaching Philosophy (click here)
  3. My Resume (click here)
  4. My first iOS app: Year of the Monkey (click here)
  5. A collaboration website that I created (click here)
  6. Dissertation research summary – Padlet (click here)
  7. Learning Theories in the Classroom (click here)
  8. Technology Word Cloud (click here)
  9. Innovative Teaching and Learning Infographic (click here)
  10. My first educational blog (click here)
  11. Shanghai Shopper – An E-Commerce Website (click here)

 

Learning through Fun and Play during the Summer Holiday

With the summer holiday just starting, a common question that we hear most frequently from parents is what can they do to ensure that children make the best of their break time and maintain or exceed their current level of progress in preparation for the next academic year. First of foremost, we’d like emphasize that play and freedom to explore are essential in enhancing children’s social, emotional and educational progress. This is true at school and it will be equally true during the summer holiday when children are at home or on vacation with you.

Nonetheless, the question of how to go about promoting learning during the holiday is well warranted and certainly one that we have given considerable thought to. The overwhelming majority of teachers wholeheartedly recommend activities which promote group interaction as well as allow for individual self-reflection during the summer holiday.

Here is a list of activities that can help your child learn effectively during the summer holiday.

1.      Indoor Activities

There are a variety of indoor activities that children can engage in this summer to help them prepare for the upcoming term. Indoors is a great place to be during the summer, particularly when it’s extremely hot or humid outside. We’ll focus on board games at length in this section as parents may not have considered using board games before and, as we will show below, board games can be used to review and reinforce previously learned concepts.

Board games for toddlers are excellent because they teach children how to follow rules to games, how to engage in turn taking as well as how to compete in a positive way at an appropriate pace and level. More importantly, there are a few board games that have been designed specifically for children in Early Years. It should be noted that most board games have small pieces and adult supervision is usually required when children play them. Here are a few board games that we recommend:

Think fun Roll and Play Board Game

In this game, children and parents get to share a huge, soft die which they roll. When the die lands on a certain color, whoever threw the die must do the actions on the card. Each color card corresponds to a different learning theme. For example, red cards are action cards (e.g. do a dance). Yellow cards are emotion cards (e.g. make a sleepy face). Purple cards are about body parts (e.g. rub your tummy). Green cards are about animal sounds (e.g. roar like a tiger). The orange cards are for counting (e.g. clap your hands ten times) and the blue cards are about colors (e.g. Find something red!). This game can be played individually or in groups between adults and children or even among a group of children. This board game should be on everyone’s list as one can review many of the concepts learned at school as well as develop children’s abilities to apply what they’ve learned.

Hungry Hippos

Hungry Hippos is a game where children and adults can practise feeding marbles to hippos. This game is suitable for 2-4 year olds. The game starts when a person touches the hippo with a hand or finger. As each person playing can have a hippo, the play in the game is parallel in nature thus the game is good for teaching children the concept of competition at a very basic level. Parents can also use the game for practising concepts such as “hungry” and “full,” colours, as well as reviewing parts of the body.

Melissa & Doug Magnetic Hide and Seek Activity Board – Farm

This game contains a magnetic puzzle board with hinged doors that open and close. Children open the doors to find removable magnets which can be placed in other doors. This is an excellent board game improve children’s memory as well as fine motor skills as parents change the location of objects in the barn and then ask children to find them. This board game is made of wood meaning that it is very sturdily made and should last for a long time.

Bug Trails

Bug Trails is a lot like dominoes but much more interesting. Of all the games here, it is probably more suitable for EY3 children or above. In this game, you try to match the colours of the legs of the bugs to pieces that are on the board. There are multiple ways to play the game but the objective is to be the first to use up all the bugs. Children must learn to think strategically as they connect the bugs together.

Other awesome summer indoor activities include:

watering and planting plants together.

  1. making ice lollies together.
  2. having a balloon party.
  3. completing DIY activities such as making playdoh.
  4. reviewing previously learned concepts.
  5. drawing or practising phonics.
  6. listening to mp3s of your child’s favourite songs and dancing to the beat.
  7. making an English corner for practising one’s speaking.
  8. reading your child’s favourite stories and having him or her retell the story.
  9. using scissors to practise cutting out shapes.
  10. using Legos to build structures.
  11. going to a museum and learning about animals, dinosaurs or art.
  12. setting up an indoor tent.
  13. tidying up indoors.

Outdoor activities

Being outdoors for moderate periods of time during the summer holiday (provided children have ample amounts of sunscreen and have applied some insect repellent) is a crucial part in developing and extending your child’s natural abilities. For one, being able to view wide, open spaces is good for children’s vision and the development of their depth perception. In addition, the freedom of movement in these spaces can help improve children’s sensory motor skills as well as enhance their hand and eye coordination.

We recommend taking trips the countryside where the air quality tends to be salubrious, nature more prevalent and spaces tend to be unimpeded thus allowing children in Early Years to explore. Trips to the beach can also promote water play and children can learn about sea animals and shells and build sand castles as well as play with other children. If you can’t get out of the city, a trip to the park can be just as helpful for breaking with routine and adding some excitement to your child’s summer holiday. Without further ado, here is our list of summer outdoor activities:

  1. Make ice cream.
  2. Make and play with hula hoops.
  3. Make art on the lawn using an old sheet.
  4. Ride bicycles around the park as a family.
  5. Try a scavenger hunt.
  6. Use chalk to draw on the ground outside.
  7. Play with torches after dark.
  8. Look for different types of bugs in the neighbourhood.
  9. Keep a garden and water the plants.
  10. Learn how to throw a Frisbee.
  11. Play with water balloons.
  12. Play sports: football or basketball for example.
  13. Make a DIY sprinkler using a plastic bottle.
  14. Use a large sheet to make a parachute.

The summer holiday presents a wonderful opportunity for families to spend time together. Through engaging in well-planned indoor and outdoor activities, children learn to collaborate. They also learn how to become integral members within the family. Furthermore, they develop confidence through having hands on experience. These are essential skills that will be particularly useful when our children return to school.

How to develop bilingualism at home

This week, we’ll explore some tips on how you can help your child get on the right path towards developing proficiency in his or her native language as well as English. A key concern for many parents is how they can help at home to enable their children to be successful in their second language. These are some common tips to keep in mind:

Make it a team effort

For your child to develop both languages effectively, everyone in the family needs to play their part. It could be that father reviews vocabulary words in the second language on Monday or that mother plays songs in the second language on Tuesday. Or perhaps the family has English speaking day in the kitchen and dining areas on Wednesday. No matter what strategy you pursue, it is important to clearly communicate your plans with all members of the family and make sure that everyone is involved. Remember, the process of bilingual language development starts at home. The more that all family members are an integral part of the language learning process the more likely your child will succeed in the long run.

                   Play games and sing songs in another language

For children, playing games and singing songs is critical to language learning success. Games include activities that involve actions such as guessing, matching, sorting, colouring and labeling. Such activities provide children with opportunities to actively use the second language while having fun. The “fun” part is really important because this will increase the likelihood that your child retains all of the rich learning experiences that takes place when they are actively involved in learning.

Songs are also equally important. There are hundreds of children’s songs to choose from and these songs should be based on your child’s interest and what they are learning at school. Try to pair dancing with music or check out Youku or Tudou for videos of dances that correspond to the song that you are trying to teach. Pairing dance with singing is exciting, reinforces key concepts through pairing sounds with action while simultaneously developing your child’s language, self-confidence as well as physical development skills.

Read children’s books in another language

Many parents who enroll their children at bilingual or international settings have a variety of bilingual books at home for their children to read. It is important to note however that it is simply not enough to read books to children. Children need to actively participate in the process. As you read books to your child, ask them about the characters, setting, and plot of the story. Teach your child new words that appear in print or from the pictures on the page and, when possible, let them retell the story to you.

Comprehension is a very important factor in the reading process. As you ask questions to your child, you will know if the level of the reading is too easy or difficult. With that in mind, make sure that your child has access to books which are level appropriate (i.e. they should know most of the words and concepts in the book and the topic should be suitable for their age). If you are unsure about the level of a book, it is often quite easy to find out if it is appropriate for your child. On the back of most recently published books is a Lexile number which corresponds with a recommended age and grade level. You can out more about Lexile numbers here: https://www.lexile.com/about-lexile/grade-equivalent/grade-equivalent-chart/

Let your child watch educational TV programs and movies in another language

We encourage parents to let their children watch television programs in the second language. Television programs such as Dora the Explorer or Super Y are great because these programs also teach concepts related to science, geography and basic vocabulary words found in daily conversation. Action cartoons with violence, fighting and videos with little dialogue are not recommended for developing bilingualism.

Get a nanny or babysitter who speaks another language

Developing bilingualism is all about exposure to the target language. Remember that the more opportunities that your child has to practise, the more likely he or she will be successful. Having a nanny or babysitter who speaks the target language will undoubtedly enhance your child’s receptive and productive skills.

Set up play dates or put your child in playgroups with children who speak another language.

Organise weekend play dates with children from your child’s class where the activities focus on using the second language to communicate. These playdates will be fun and your child will have confidence to communicate with children who they are familiar with.

There are multiple opportunities to practise using English in Shanghai as well. The website Time Out Shanghai has a section for families which contains suggestions for family weekend events such as museum trips, arts and crafts as well as visits to the park

(http://www.timeoutshanghai.com/family/Things-to-do-in-Shanghai.html). I have taken my own children to a couple of events. We learned how to build robots with iPads at one event and the organiser spoke English the entire time.

Encourage your child to actively use another language

It is not enough to simply memorise vocabulary words and phrases. Your child will need to start actively using what they’ve learned in order to truly become bilingual. Make communication in the second language a regular part of your daily or weekly routine. Make sure to read the Week Ahead to determine what your child is learning at the setting and then make an effort to begin using the words, phrases, and discussing key concepts and topics at home. Set aside time every week for communicating in the target language. It may help to make a certain area of the house a place for communicating in the second language. For example, the dining room could serve as your child’s English corner.

Be persistent

Learning a second language takes time and it requires consistent effort and diligent practise. Keep in mind that, in order to succeed, team work, play dates, language rich environments and set routines are key components to helping children bilingual. Language learning is a lifelong process that requires grit, keen determination and an open mindset. Following the steps above however should put your child on the path to becoming successful in their second language and on the road towards becoming bilingual.

 

Note: Subheadings were adapted from:

eHow: How to raise a bilingual child

The advantages of using video games as virtual worlds in the ESL classroom

Research Topic Description:

Language learning environments in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) contexts are often decontextualized which deprive language learners of meaningful contexts to make language learning relevant, motivating and worthwhile as opportunities to practice using the language outside of the classroom are limited. English language teaching in East Asia, particularly in China has often been described as based primarily on traditional rote memorization and drilling techniques that focus on learning vocabulary words, recitation of texts and learning prescriptive grammar rules. As such, teaching and learning methods are primarily geared toward preparing students to pass language knowledge tests with little emphasis on long term retention of language knowledge, development of specific language skills and strategies or understanding of the cultural dynamics of the target language. This research seeks to understand, frame and shed light on how to practically teach and scaffold language learning utilizing technology, specifically video games as virtual worlds, to motivate learners, contextualize the learning experience, and promote strategic language teaching. This research also addresses the issue of how the introduction of virtual worlds in the class will give language teachers a cost effective medium to not only practice key language structures and learn vocabulary, but also give children the opportunity interact meaningfully with others (particularly native speakers), utilize key language learning skills and strategies to meaningfully collaborate, reflect and solve problems.

Two Handouts:

Rankin, Y., McNeal, M., Shute, M., & Gooch, B. (2008). User centered game design:                 Evaluating massive multiplayer online role playing games for second language                   acquisition. Paper presented at the 2008 Sandbox Symposium. Retrieved from:               http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1401843.1401851

Wu, W. V., Yen, L. L., & Marek, M. (2011). Using online EFL interaction to increase confidence,        motivation, and ability. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 14(3), 118.

Understanding creativity

I believe creativity refers to a process that one engages in to find novel, efficient and effective solutions for existing or future problems. Thinking creatively requires a person to suspend judgement and thinking rooted in past actions and ways of thinking in order to connect with the best possible future for him or herself as well as the organization that he or she is an integral part of.

Thinking creatively is also a form of engagement with those future opportunities through synthesizing ideas, strategies and methodologies that result in gains for all stakeholders involved in the process. For example, although the light bulb and cars were invented by different people, the inclusion of lights on cars enabled people to see at night thus empowering them to drive after sunset allowing for greater freedom of movement. The pairing of these two pre-existing ideas to improve the quality of the stakeholder experience is an example of creativity at work. As a result, ideas that result in creative expression may be novel or they may just come from synthesizing ideas that already exist.

Creativity requires initiative. Initiative is the prerequisite of being creative. In deciding to act, one moves from inaction to action, from brainstorming and ideation towards implementation. This process involves turning one’s vision into a logical and comprehensible plan of action that others in the organization can believe in, interpret and realize. Plans for creative action must be articulated clearly in order for change to take place.

Educator, startup and social entrepreneur who aims to use technology to connect teachers and students. My ultimate goal is to prepare our students for the challenges of the 21st century.